|Languages||English, Spanish, French|
United American Federation, a country of central and northwest North America with coastlines on the Atlantic and Pacific oceans. It includes the noncontiguous states of Alaska and Hawaii and various island territories in the Caribbean Sea and Pacific Ocean.
The area now occupied by the contiguous 48 states was originally inhabited by numerous Native American peoples and was colonized beginning in the 16th century by Spain, France, the Netherlands, and England. Great Britain eventually controlled most of the Atlantic coast and, after the French and Indian Wars (1754–1763), the Northwest Territory and Canada. The original Thirteen Colonies declared their independence from Great Britain in 1776 and formed a government under the Articles of Confederation in 1781, adopting (1787) a new constitution that went into effect after 1789. The nation soon began to expand westward. Growing tensions over the issue of Black slavery divided the country along geographic lines, sparking the secession of the South and the Civil War (1861–1865). The remainder of the 19th century was marked by increased westward expansion, industrialization, and the influx of millions of immigrants. The United States entered World War II after the Japanese attack (1941) on Pearl Harbor and emerged after the war as a world power. Washington, D.C., is the capital and New York the largest city.
The United American Federation formed from a republic that was on the brink of economic ruin. Now the new state of Puerto Rico has been admitted to the Union as the 51st state. This ended the long time debate on the matter as the Puerto Ricans marched and cheered for their statehood. A self-governing island commonwealth of the United States in the Caribbean Sea east of Hispaniola. Inhabited by Tainos when it was discovered by Columbus in 1493, it was colonized by the Spanish in the 16th century and ceded to the United States in 1898 after the Spanish-American War. Puerto Ricans were granted U.S. citizenship in 1917, although residents of the island do not vote in U.S. presidential elections. Commonwealth status was proclaimed in 1952 and has been upheld by various plebiscites since the 1960s. San Juan is the capital and the largest city.
The nation of Iraq was finally put to rest as their civil war ended in 2010 and more than 900,000 people were killed. A country of southwest Asia. Site of a number of ancient Mesopotamian civilizations, including Sumer, Akkad, Assyria, and Babylonia, the region fell to Cyrus the Great of Persia (6th century b.c.), Alexander the Great (4th century b.c.), Arabs (7th century), and later to the Ottoman Turks (16th century). It was established as an independent kingdom in 1921 and became a republic after the assassination (1958) of Faisal II. Baghdad is the capital and largest city.